New Kangbuk Samsung Health Research is an excellent cohort study of Korean anyone, old ?18 decades, who underwent a thorough annual otherwise biennial wellness examination from the Kangbuk Samsung Medical Total Healthcare Centers in Seoul and you will Suwon, Southern Korea. a dozen Very examinees (>80%) try staff of several businesses and local governmental communities and their spouses. Into the Southern area Korea, the new Industrial Health and safety Legislation need yearly or biennial fitness screening assessments of all the employees, free.
Our studies is actually simply for Kangbuk Samsung Health Analysis participants who underwent a comprehensive health examination from , and you will offered informed consent having linkage into the Medical insurance Opinion and you can Evaluation Services databases (n=263 532; Contour step one). During the Korea, health care are planned under a compulsory single?payer all over the country insurance rates system (Federal Health insurance) one to collects most of the information on medical properties use since the entire Korean populace below an intensive databases manage by the Medical health insurance Comment and you will Comparison Service. 13
We excluded participants with missing data on BP or history of hypertension (n=1018), with history of malignancy (n=6255), with history of CVD (n=3440), or with a diagnosis of CVD (n=10 471) at www.datingranking.net/blendr-review/ baseline. Because some participants met >1 exclusion criterion, the final sample size included in the analysis was 244 837 participants (mean [SD] age, 39.0 [8.9] years; interquartile range, 32.2–43.7 years; and young adults aged <40 years of 60.7 %).
Written told concur try obtained from every professionals. The study are authorized by the Organization Review Panel out of Kangbuk Samsung Healthcare.
Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, medical history, and family history of CVD were collected by standardized, self?administered questionnaires. 14 Smoking status was categorized as never, former, and current smoker. Alcohol intake was categorized as <20 and ?20 g/d, as applied in previous studies. 12 , 15 Education level was categorized as less than college and college education or more. Physical activity was assessed using the validated Korean version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form. 16 Participants were classified as inactive, minimally active, and health?enhancing physically active. Health?enhancing physically active was defined as physical activity that meets either of 2 criteria: (1) vigorous?intensity activity on ?3 days per week, accumulating ?1500 metabolic equivalent min/wk; or (2) 7 days of any combination of walking, moderate?intensity activities, or vigorous?intensity activities achieving at least 3000 metabolic equivalent min/wk. 16 Usual dietary intake was assessed using a 103?item, self?administered food frequency questionnaire designed and validated for use in Korea. 17 Daily intake of sodium was calculated by multiplying the frequency of consumption of each food by the portion size and sodium content of each food and summing across all relevant food items. 18 , 19
Height and weight were measured by trained nurses. Body mass index was calculated as weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters squared). BP was measured using an automated oscillometric device (53000; Welch Allyn, New York, NY) by trained nurses while participants were in a sitting position, with the arm supported at the heart level after a 5?minute rest. We recoded 3 consecutive BP readings and used the average of the second and third readings in the analysis. BP levels were categorized according to the 2017 ACC/AHA hypertension guideline. 11 Participants without a history of hypertension were categorized as normal BP (< mm Hg), elevated BP (120–129/<80 mm Hg), stage 1 hypertension (130––89 mm Hg), and stage 2 hypertension (? mm Hg). Participants with a history of hypertension were categorized as treated and strictly controlled hypertension (< mm Hg on antihypertensive medication use), treated and controlled hypertension (130––89 mm Hg on antihypertensive medication use), treated but uncontrolled hypertension (? mm Hg on antihypertensive medication use), and untreated hypertension (not using antihypertensive medications).